NAM’s stand on UNFCC

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an intergovernmental treaty developed to address the problem of climate change. The Convention, which sets out an agreed framework for dealing with the issue, was negotiated from February 1991 to May 1992 and opened for signature at the June 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) — also known as the Rio Earth Summit. The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994, ninety days after the 50th country’s ratification had been received. By December 2007, it had been ratified by 192 countries. For the purposes of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the global south is not a monolith, but means a diverse assemblage of 150 states classified as “non-Annex 1” Parties. At its core is the “Group of 77”, created in 1964 and since expanded to include roughly 95% of the non-Annex 1 population, including the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The UNFCC acknowledges the vulnerability of all countries to the effects of climate change and calls for special efforts to ease the consequences, especially in developing countries which lack the resources to do so on their own.
Since the entering into force of UNFCC, the Non-Aligned Movement has stated that developed countries’ commitments to provide developing countries with financing and the transfer of technology for climate change should be carried out under the UNFCCC. At the Algiers NAM Ministerial Summit 2014, NAM leaders called on developed country Parties to demonstrate how they would reach their target of mobilizing USD100 billion per year by 2020 and called for the full capitalization of the Green Climate Fund. NAM has thus urged the international community to assist developing countries to address the adverse impact of climate change, particularly through new, additional, adequate and predictable financial resources that should not replace Official Development Assistance (ODA).
NAM has reiterated that urgent measures are needed to support adaptation and nationally appropriate mitigation actions undertaken by developing countries, in accordance with their national capabilities and circumstances as well as the level of support they are receiving, and to strengthen cooperation at the global level to address, inter alia, desertification, land degradation and deforestation, and has called upon the international community to prioritize the needs of the developing countries, taking into account the needs of those that are particularly vulnerable, in accordance with the criteria set in the UNFCCC, and to provide long-term, non conditional, adequate, scaled-up, predictable, new and additional finance, technology development and support as well as capacity-building. NAM’s efforts towards addressing climate change were acknowledged by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon in 2011. The Secretary General remarked that climate change was one of three fields – the other two being building a safer world and fighting extreme poverty – in which joint action by the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement was essential. The Secretary-General told ministers from the member countries of NAM that “governments must implement fully all the agreements made at Cancun, including on climate finance, protecting forests, adaptation, and technology.” In Cancun in December 2010, at the 16th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), some 190 countries made commitments to formalize mitigation pledges and ensure increased accountability for them, as well as to take concrete action to tackle deforestation, which account for nearly one fifth of global carbon emissions.
As a prominent member of NAM, India has followed a middle path with respect to UNFCC. India signed the UNFCCC on 10 June 1992 and ratified it on 1 November 1993. Under the UNFCCC, developing countries such as India do not have binding GHG mitigation commitments in recognition of their small contribution to the greenhouse problem as well as low financial and technical capacities. At the climate talks, in keeping with the NAM”s position, India has sought to seek more funds from the developed nations. At the Climate Change Conference of Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol held in Lima (Peru) in 2014, the Indian delegation was tasked with protecting India’s long term interests and emphasizing the need for growth and development space to tackling the problem of eradicating poverty, providing energy access to all and addressing other developmental priorities. The delegation was guided by the vision of the Government and Cabinet mandate. Its stand in the negotiations was also guided by the principle of Equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities, which is the bedrock principle of the UNFCCC. Thus, it can be concluded that NAM member countries are committed to the principles of the UNFCC, but at the same time call for a progressive sharing and a greater funding from the developed world to address the various issues in climate change.

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