Since its inception, the Non-Aligned Movement has played a significant contribution towards maintaining international peace and security. NAM regards peacekeeping as the flagship activity of the United Nations. NAM Member States contribute to 88 per cent of all UN peacekeeping personnel deployed on the field. The Movement has adopted a principled position concerning UN peacekeeping operations.
NAM believes that the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security rests with the UN and that the role of regional arrangements, in that regard, should be in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter, and should not in any way substitute the role of the UN, or circumvent the full application of the guiding principles of the UN peacekeeping operations.
At the 8033rd meeting of the UN Security Council held on 29th August 2017, NAM put forwards its principled position on the UN peacekeeping operations. Venezuela, speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement emphasised that all mandated peacekeeping tasks must be accompanied by a parallel, comprehensive and inclusive peace process and based on national ownership and the consent and adherence of the concerned parties. NAM stresses that such operations are not a substitute for addressing the root causes of conflict, among them poverty, hunger, inequality, human rights violations and mismanagement of natural resources. NAM also emphasizes the importance of respecting States’ sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence, reiterating that the principles of peacekeeping – consent of the parties, impartiality and the non-use of force expect in self-defence – are critical to the success of peace operations.
NAM believes that increasing demand for peacekeeping missions and the multidimensional nature of contemporary operations call for a more robust partnership between the United Nations and regional organizations.
In this respect, the African Member States of NAM attach great significance to the United Nations Security Council resolution 2320 (2016) which acknowledges the need for more cooperation between the African Union handled peace operations and the United Nations and stresses the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for African Union-led peace support operations authorized by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority consistent with Chapter VIII of the UN Charter. South Africa has called for United Nations assessed contributions to be used for financing African Union-led peace support operations authorized by the UN Security Council.
Botswana while supporting resolution 2282 (2016) has noted that peacekeeping operations should complement existing national, regional and international efforts aimed at advancing dialogue, strengthening national capacity and assisting institution. It may be mentioned here that Botswana had contributed troops and military personnel to operations in such places as Somalia, Rwanda, Darfur, Mozambique and Lesotho. In the latter two, as well as in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, it had played a mediating role, while its former President, Festus G. Mogae, was currently serving as Chairman of the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Committee in South Sudan.
NAM has also reiterated the importance of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, the only United Nations forum mandated to comprehensively review that question, advocating a structural and predictable approach to triangular consultation among the Council, the troop- and police-contributing countries and the Secretariat.
NAM has emphasized that in the context of the comprehensive approach and the objective of a lasting peace and security, UN peacekeeping operations should be accompanied by a parallel and inclusive peace process that is well planned and carefully designed, supported by the consent and adherence of the parties concerned.
The Movement has called for peacekeeping missions to be accompanied by the promotion of economic recovery, reintegration and capacity-building. In conducting UN peacekeeping operations, NAM has called for adherence to all relevant Council resolutions as well as consultations with concerned States — including host countries – and has stated that the priorities of the latter must be considered, especially when designing and devising mission mandates and exit strategies.
By Dr. Pawan Mathur