Nearly a quarter of all new, emerging, or re-emerging diseases affecting humans at the beginning of the 21st century are zoonotic (i.e. originated in animals). Notable reminders of how vulnerable the increasingly interconnected world is to the global impact of new emergent diseases include HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, and the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. The speed with which these diseases can emerge and spread presents serious public health, economic, and development concerns. It also underscores the need for the development of comprehensive disease detection and response capacities, particularly in developing counties of Central Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and Latin America where a confluence of risk factors may contribute to disease emergence.
The Non-Aligned Movement has expressed its concerns over the threat posed by the emergence and spread of pandemics, including swine flu A (H1N1) and the Avian Influenza, which have the potential to produce a severe impact not only on public health worldwide but also on the global economy. The Movement believes that concerted actions should be undertaken at the national, regional and international levels to address and deal with the challenge in an effective and timely manner.
At the NAM Algiers Ministerial meeting in 2014, NAM leaders, welcomed the adoption by consensus of the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution 64/57 on pandemic influenza preparedness: sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccine and other benefits. The concerned resolution recognized the role of industry as an important contributor to technology innovation and transfer in addressing the challenges of pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The resolution further urged the Member States to implement the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework. The objective of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework is to improve Pandemic Influenza preparedness and response, and strengthen the protection against the pandemic influenza by improving and strengthening the WHO global influenza surveillance and response system (“WHO GISRS”), with the objective of a fair, transparent, equitable, efficient, effective system for, on an equal footing he sharing of H5N1 and other influenza viruses with human pandemic potential and access to vaccines and sharing of other benefits. According to the Framework, Member States, through their National Influenza Centres and Other authorized laboratories, should in a rapid, systematic and timely manner provide PIP biological materials from all cases of H5N1 and other influenza \viruses with human pandemic potential, as feasible, to the WHO Collaborating Centre on Influenza or WHO H5 Reference Laboratory of the originating Member State’s choice.
Health experts and policy practitioners in developing countries suggest a number of recommendations for optimising fight against the pandemic threats. The existing national PIP frameworks should be revised in line with pandemic influenza risk management WHO interim guidance. The national pandemic influenza vaccine deployment plan should be revised and integrated with the PIP. Cooperation and coordination between relevant government sectors and other stakeholders in the national plan should be further strengthened with specific roles and responsibilities defined in the framework. The scope of pandemic influenza preparedness plan should be expanded to include Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) and all hazards. The pandemic preparedness plan should be interlinked with disaster preparedness plans
The PIP framework has been successfully implemented in many Member States of the Non- Aligned Movement. Many NAM Member States in Asia such as India, Myanmar, Thailand, and Sri Lanka have integrated or linked their influenza pandemic preparedness planning with their national disaster management structures and plan. In Indonesia PIP Framework funds are supporting revamping the country’s public health laboratory network to create a high-quality Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) network that meets the needs of pandemic threats. The PIP Framework in Indonesia is also supporting capacity-building through laboratory diagnosis and biosafety-biosecurity training, quality control assessment, and technical monitoring and evaluation. Bangladesh has devised a strong and extensive surveillance systems and platforms to monitor and characterize the severity of an influenza pandemic.