Non-Aligned Movement has reiterated the need for formulating effective policies to combat corruption. With regards to elimination of the problem, NAM has strongly advocated the adherence of Member States to the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), which obliges the States to prevent and criminalize different corrupt practices, promote international cooperation, cooperate for the recovery of stolen assets and enhance technical assistance and information exchange.
Apart from UNCAC, NAM also places great emphasis on the Marrakech Declaration on the prevention of corruption, which was adopted during the 4th Conference of State Parties to the United Nations Convention against Corruption, held in Marrakech from 24 to 28 October 2011. The Marrakech Declaration recognises the significance of UNCAC and states that relevant government agencies, civil society and relevant professional organizations can individually and collectively make significant contributions to the effective implementation of the UNCAC.
The Marrakech Declaration places emphasis on asset recovery as an important mechanism in the fight against corruption, in accordance with Chapter V of UNCAC. Chapter V of UNCAC states that each State Party shall take such measures as may be necessary, in accordance with its domestic law, to require financial institutions within its jurisdiction to verify the identity of customers, to take reasonable steps to determine the identity of beneficial owners of funds deposited into high-value accounts and to conduct enhanced scrutiny of accounts sought or maintained by or on behalf of individuals who are, or have been, entrusted with prominent public functions and their family members and close associates. The Marrakech Declaration calls on States Parties to cooperate and provide assistance in the prevention and detection of transfers of proceeds of corruption, confiscation and the return and disposal of assets. The Declaration also calls on States Parties to consider concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements to enhance the effectiveness of international cooperation in matters pertaining to asset recovery.
Consistent with this position, NAM has stressed that one of the high priorities in the fight against corruption is to ensure the return of illegally acquired assets to the country of origin. At the 2018 NAM Ministerial Meeting held in Baku, the Movement urged all States Parties and relevant international organizations, consistent with the principles of the Convention, in particular Chapter V, to strengthen their cooperation at all levels in order to facilitate the quick return of such assets, and to assist requesting States to build human, legal and institutional capacity to facilitate tracing, confiscation and recovery of such assets.
Another important aspect highlighted by the Marrakech Declaration to combat corruption is by asking national governments to institute relevant reforms that promote the required professionalism of their anticorruption authorities, including law enforcement and prosecutorial bodies, the independence and integrity of the Judiciary, the prevention of conflict of interest in public office, freedom of access to information, transparency and accountability in public administration. Non-Aligned Movement is also a firm believer that these elements are essential pillars to prevent and combat corruption effectively.
Non-Aligned Movement has also welcomed the 2013 Follow-up of the Marrakech Declaration on the prevention of corruption. The follow-up encourages States parties to integrate anti-corruption policies in broader crime prevention and criminal justice reform strategies, public sector reform plans and development programmes, strategies and action plans. It also calls on the State parties to ensure that their public service is based on the principles of efficiency, transparency and objective criteria in recruitment, the promotion of integrity, honesty and responsibility and adherence to codes of conduct for public officials. In accordance with these provisions, NAM has also called upon Member States to continue working with all stakeholders on domestic and international financial markets to deny safe haven to assets illicitly acquired by individuals engaged in corruption, to deny entry and safe haven to corrupt officials and those who corrupt them, and enhancing international collaboration in the investigation and prosecution of corruption offences, as well as in the recovery of proceeds of corruption.