In post-cold war era, with the resolution of peace and disarmament, self-determination, economic equality, cultural equality and multilateralism, newly independent countries yoked together and refused to align themselves with any block or alliance led by the Unites States and Soviet Russia. At the Bandung Conference, in 1955, twenty nine Asian-African countries marked themselves as Neutral to power politics and zeroed down five principles called “Panchsheel” based on mutual co-existence.
India’s then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was believed to be the architect of this Non-Aligned Movement. While Fidel Castro announced the humanitarian zeal of the Movement. Non-Aligned Movement was founded to meet the fundamental needs of people struggling to achieve freedom, equality, justice, peace and emancipation from the colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism and hegemony by a repudiation of regimes founded on relation of dependency and dominion. It is in one way a positive treatise that aimed to avoid hostility to other countries and safeguard peace.
All human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated. The international community must treat different categories of human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing and with the same emphasis. The movement accepts the universality of human rights and social justice, but fiercely resists cultural homogenisation. In line with its views on sovereignty, the organisation appeals for the protection of cultural diversity, and the tolerance of the religious, socio-cultural, and historical particularities that define human rights in a specific region.
Reaffirming its dedication and promise to encouraging international cooperation as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, particularly in Article 1, paragraph 3 along with the relevant provisions of Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights in 1993 Non-aligned movement has continued to carry on with the agenda of human rights encouraging nations to uphold it in all matters. Realising the importance of a cordial dialogue between various religions, cultures and civilisations to be the ground work to contribute greatly in not only sustain human rights world-wide also enhance international cooperation in this field. International cooperation deemed essential for the full achievement of the purposes of the smooth functioning of the alliance, including the efficient promotion and shielding and fortification of all human rights.
NAM has time and again reaffirmed the objectives of human rights issue, underscoring its importance and the need of mutual comprehension and cooperation:
1. It urges it States, intergovernmental organisations and specialised agencies to continue to carry out constructive dialogue and consultations for the enhancement of understanding and the promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, and encourages non-governmental organisation to contribute actively to this endeavour.
2. It invites all States, relevant UN human rights mechanisms to continue to pay attention to the need and importance of mutual cooperation understanding and dialogue to guarantee the protection and further promotion of human rights.
3. It ensures that the human rights agenda is always a priority and taken care of revisiting the issue in frequent intervals to add required measures or delete obsolete ones, for its smooth functioning.
4. Also requests the United Nations High Commission for Human rights to submit frequent reports on the matter to keep a check on the progress.
5. Requests Human Rights councils to adopt ways to enhance international cooperation in the field, to also further other prospects of the non-aligned movement.
6. Incorporates measures to ensure respect for cultural diversity while protecting human rights, as it remains its key element in the strategy and action to propagate peace, development, multilateralism and international security.
NAM member states have been advised and in turn they preach tolerance and respect for cultural, ethnic religious and linguistic diversities along with equitable and mutually respectful dialogue among civilizations to promote peace and disseminate understanding and friendship among individuals and people of different cultures and nations of the world. A particular attention was paid to the deliberation of the impact of globalization in the gratification of cultural rights by everyone and the respect of cultural diversity. It was emphasized that the process of globalization constitutes a influential and energetic force which should be harnessed for the advantage, development and affluence of all countries, without exclusion.