Non-Aligned Movement has recognized the provision of mediation and its use as a promising and cost-effective tool in peace process. NAM attaches significance to Resolution 68/303 adopted by the United Nations General Assembly which calls for strengthening the role of mediation in the peaceful settlement of disputes, conflict prevention and resolution.
NAM Member States reiterated NAM’s position at the 8334th Meeting of the United Nations Security Council held on 29th August 2018. Venezuela, speaking on behalf of Non-Aligned Movement, reiterated NAM’s principled position that the challenges facing the international community must be addressed by all nations through multilateralism. The Movement has historically been an advocate for the peaceful resolution of disputes, the non-resort to the threat or use of force, and for a greater use of the provisions laid out in the United Nations Charter. Rule of law is the cornerstone not only to the peaceful settlement of disputes, but also to the maintenance of international peace and security.
Cuba, associating itself with Non-Aligned Movement, said that UN Security Council should ensure that mediation is wielded with full respect for international law and the principles of the United Nations Charter. Recent cases had demonstrated that mediation cannot succeed in the absence of good faith, impartiality and respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Each situation must be appreciated in accordance with its unique characteristic. Cuba emphasized the need to ensure the consent of parties to a dispute, as well as the impartiality of mediators.
Bangladesh cited positive mediation examples set by the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) and the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), among other missions, to achieve dialogue at the local level. Special political missions have proven useful in that regard. Bangladesh said that mediation must pass the rigours of transparency and objectivity in order to be effective.
Vietnam said that the United Nations needs to make full use of preventative diplomacy, good offices and mediation, while also helping States to improve their capacity to address root causes of conflict. For its part, the Security Council must remain united in pursuing the peaceful resolution of disputes. Vietnam reaffirmed the vital importance of regional organizations, citing efforts by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to build confidence and establish a regional code of conduct and urged concerned parties to a dispute or conflict to comply with international law and refrain from any action that might escalate tension.
Indonesia said that dialogue and mediation must be pursued on the basis of international law, justice and fair play. The country underlined the need to resolve the root causes of conflict in a just and even-handed manner, with the Security Council fulfilling its role in line with Charter principles, international law and international humanitarian law.
Thus, NAM believes that peaceful settlement of disputes, conflict prevention and resolution, in accordance with the Charter and international law, including through mediation, remain a primary responsibility of Member States.
In accordance with UNGA Resolution 68/303, NAM affirms that responsible and credible mediation requires, inter alia, national ownership, the consent of parties to a particular dispute or conflict, the impartiality of the mediators, their compliance with agreed mandates, respect for national sovereignty, compliance with obligations of States and other relevant actors under international law, including applicable treaties, the operational preparedness, including process and substantive expertise, of the mediators, and coherence, coordination and complementarity of mediation efforts.
NAM has stressed the need for Member States as well as the United Nations and regional and sub-regional organizations to continue to improve, as appropriate, their capacities in the pacific settlement of disputes, conflict prevention and conflict resolution, including mediation, for sustainable peace. The Movement acknowledges that regional and sub-regional organizations can benefit mediation efforts with their specific approaches stemming from their geographic, cultural and historical proximity to, as well as information about, specific local conflict situations within their mandates, and contribute to the prevention and resolution of such conflicts.
By Dr. Pawan Mathur