Non-Aligned Movement recognises that climate change poses a grave risk to the developing countries in particular, and hence, has called for taking the necessary action to address the challenge in accordance with the principles and provisions of the principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, as a framework for international cooperation to combat climate change by limiting average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and coping with impacts that were, by then, inevitable.
By 1995, countries launched negotiations to strengthen the global response to climate change, and, two years later, adopted the Kyoto Protocol which legally binds developed country Parties to emission reduction targets. The 2015 Paris Agreement, adopted in Paris on 12 December 2015, aiming to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius is the latest phase in the evolution of the UN climate change regime.
NAM has reaffirmed that the UNFCC is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change and that efforts to address climate change should promote the integration of all three components of sustainable development namely economic development, social development and environmental protection, as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars, in an integrated, coordinated and balanced manner.
NAM Member States have been actively working towards addressing climate change and complying with the principles of the UNFCC. India signed the UNFCCC on 10 June 1992 and ratified it on 1 November 1993. As per the first Biennial Update Report (BUR) submitted by India to the UNFCC on 22 July 2016, India’s per capita GHG emission in 2010 was 1.56 tCO2 equivalent, which is less than one- third of the world’s per capita emissions and far below than many developed and developing countries. A reduction of emission intensity of GDP by about 12% between 2005 and 2010 was achieved against India’ voluntary pledge to reduce the emission intensity of its GDP by 20–25 per cent by 2020, compared with the 2005 level. The BUR also mentioned that 137 a measures at the state level and 286 policies at the state level relevant to addressing climate change had been undertaken. Such measures included the National Action Plan on Climate Change, Integrated.
Apart from India, other NAM Member States that have submitted first biennial report to UNFCC are Azerbaijan, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Peru, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, Tunisia, and Vietnam. Chile, Namibia, Singapore, and Tunisia are among the NAM Member States that have also submitted their second biennial report to the UNFCC.
Chile signed the Paris Agreement in September 2016. In its second biennial report, Chile has mentioned about the creation of the Climate Change Office (OCC) in 2010. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory System of Chile (SNICHILE) looks towards ensuring the sustainability of the preparation of Green House Gases (GHG) inventories in the country. Chilean President Bachelet has also announced the establishment of the Chilean Agency on Climate Change and Sustainable Development.
Namibia signed the Paris Agreement on the 22 April 2016 and ratified it on the 21 September of the same year. In Namibia, the cabinet approved the National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (NCCSAP). Namibia aims at a reduction of about 89% of its GHG emissions by 2030.
Singapore ratified the Paris Agreement on 21 September 2016. In its second biennial report, Singapore states that the country’s climate action plan of June 2016 plans to increase deployment of solar energy from around 100 MWp today to at least 350 MWp by 2020. The country has targeted an increase in the public transport modal share from 66% in 2014 to 75% by 2030. The country has also switched from fuel oil to natural gas in the power sector. Tunisia ratified the Paris Agreement on 17 October 2016 and thus confirmed its political commitment Implementation of its Determined National Contribution aimed at reducing its Carbon emissions by 41% in 2030 compared with 2010.
By Dr. Pawan Mathur