One of the key reasons for the formation of the Non –Aligned Movement was to declare solidarity between nation states with a shared history of oppression and facing similar challenges of technological and economic development. The cold war which became the pretext of this new solidarity also influenced many political and cultural changes in many nation states. One such instance was the formation and enforcement of the no fly zone policy over Iraq , two individual zones have been established over Iraq by the United States, France and United Kingdom after the cold war to protect the Kurds in North and Shiite Muslims from the south after the Gulf war of 1991.
Like any other war , gulf war was marked by loss of human life and infrastructural damage . The Cartagena summit started with an inquiry towards resolving the fate of the 700 Iraqi civilians and military personnel who went missing after the 1991 war. During this time of war large amounts of artworks and antique objects were also stolen from Iraq a list detailing the name of all such items was also submitted to the ICRC.
The Turkish armed forces were also condemned for the repeated violation of the territorial integrity of Iraq under the pretext of fighting a war against guerrilla elements hiding inside Iraqi territory . These actions were seen as illegal violation of the international boundaries and threat to regional and international peace and security. The justification given by Turkey against such actions which the country endorses as “hot-pursuit “ measures were further condemned as abhorrent to international law.
The summit also marked the review of the situation between Iraq and Kuwait, with the members emphasizing that all member countries were committed towards respecting the sovereignty , territorial integrity and political independence of both Kuwait and Iraq . The situation can only be resolved by implementation of all relevant security council resolutions . The summit therefore urged Iraq to achieve completion of implementation of all relevant Security Council resolutions.
The unification of the Korean peninsula continued to be the centre of debates , with the Korean people desiring unification while both countries remain in the state of conflict since the second world war. Nam members reaffirmed their support to the Korean people to reunify their homeland in accordance to the principles set forth in the North –South Joint Statement on July 4th ,1972 and through the policy of exchange between North-South on February 1992.
Military Confrontation in Afghanistan was also a topic of concern during the summit. The members expressed their concern at the continuation of the supply of arms, ammunition, military equipment and other support to all conflict groups. The members called upon all states concerned to end all support towards such activities, the presence and involvement of foreign military personnel was also seen as agent in the conflict.
The capture of Consulate General of Iran in Mazar-e-Sherif and demanded the safe and dignified passage out of Afghanistan and the release of other Iranian political prisoners. Other matters of discussions were, the progress of implementation of Panama Treaty between Panama and United States, Guyana and Venezuela conflict was resolved with all members supporting the decision to reach a final settlement as called for by the Geneva Agreement of 1966. Members also called upon the united states to put an end to economic , commercial and financial actions against Cuba. The return of Guantanamo Naval base to the country was posed as a possible solution to end conflict between the two nations.